Introduction to Authentication Frameworks (PAM and SSPI)

This article gives a very brief high-level introduction to PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) and SSPI (Security Support Provider Interface) as authentication frameworks in Linux and Windows respectively.


The Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) architecture provides a powerful abstraction for user IAM using pluggable authentication model Unix platforms. It defines a generic API for authentication and hides the underlying mechanisms. Thanks to PAM, administrators can plug different authentication modules and protocols into Linux. This makes different authentication methods and protocols available to applications running on Linux. Here is some of authentication methods and protocols that PAM supports:

  • Unix file-based authentication (using /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow)
  • LDAP-based authentication
  • Kerbero-based authentication
  • NTLM-based authentication

PAM obviates the need for a separate authentication schemes. It exports methods of the various libraries under its auspices to calling applications. Here is a diagram for PAM on Redhat.

PAM can also enbable single-sign-on(SSO) on the UNIX platform. If the password used for different services are identical, PAM can be used to share the password transparently between the application’s possibly different authentication mechanisms. PAM is configured in /etc/pam.d/ directory.

The Windows equivalent of PAM is the Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI) and its Security Support Provider (SSP) Modules. For example /etc/pam./login manages login module, /tec/pam.d/imap manages imap module.


Windows Authentication Architecture involves Local Security Authority (LSA, to authenticate users to local computer only and is managed in local security policy) and Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI).

SSPI is the API that obtains integrated security service for authentication, message integrity, message privacy, and security quality-of-service for any distributed application protocol. SSPI is the implementation of the Generic Security Service API (GSS-API) in Windows operating system. Applications and infrastructure services authenticate users by using the SSPI to abstract calls for authentication. This way, developers do not need to understand the complexities of specific authentication protocols or build authentication protocols into their applications. Here is the architecture diagram:

Diagram showing the Security Support Provider Interface Architecture

The SSPI in Windows provides a mechansim that carries authentication token over the existing communication channel between the client computer and the server. When two computers or devices need to be authenticated so that they can communicate securely, the requests for authentication are routed to the SSPI, which completes the authentication process, regardless of the network protocol currently in use.

Here is some exampls of SSPs that are supported by SSPI:

  • Kerberos SSP (default for Active Directory)
  • Digest SSP
  • Negotiate SSP (based on SPNEGO, RFC4178)
  • Credential SSP
  • Negotiate Extension SSP

Some SSPs such as Kerberos SSP and NTLM SSP use a single protocol. Some (e.g. Negotiate SSP and Credential SSP) combine several protocols to allow application to select what security mechanism they wish to use and negotiate with authentication services.